La percezione del rischio chimico nelle serre.

L’uso di prodotti fitosanitari (PF) nel comparto produttivo in serra può comportare rischi, più o meno elevati, per i lavoratori agricoli.

La normativa di riferimento in tema di tutela della salute e della sicurezza nei luoghi di lavoro (D.Lgs. n. 81/2008) impone, in qualsiasi ambiente lavorativo, l’eliminazione del rischio di esposizione ad agenti nocivi o la sua riduzione al più basso livello possibile.

Tra i rischi presenti nel settore agricoltura, si annovera quello chimico da esposizione a prodotti fitosanitari.

Quando l’attività agricola viene effettuata in ambiente protetto (serra) si ha, da un lato, un accumulo dei contaminanti aerodispersi e dall’altro un incremento di temperatura e umidità relativa che può potenzialmente condizionare sia la capacità inalatoria che di assorbimento cutaneo.

Per questi fattori, la valutazione del rischio può risultare complessa e gli strumenti utilizzati non risultano sempre efficaci e ad oggi non esiste una procedura formalizzata per la valutazione del rischio chimico per le coltivazioni in ambiente protetto.

Da questo ne deriva una valutazione del rischio non reale e spesso sotto stimata rispetto al grado di rischio rappresentato.

Alcune ricerche effettuate a livello europeo e in ambito prevenzionale sul rischio da esposizioni ad agenti chimici, hanno cercato di concretizzare un sistema di monitoraggio e di valutazione standardizzato.  

La ricerca condotta ha permesso di identificare una differente potenzialità di esposizione inalatoria in funzione al tipo di copertura utilizzata nella serra confermando che il rischio minore di esposizione si rileva nelle condizioni di copertura costituite da una semplice rete ombreggiante rispetto a quella con telo in materiale plastico.

Nelle prove condotte sono state analizzate anche due diverse metodologie di distribuzione dei prodotti traendole tra quelle più diffuse nel comparto: distribuzione manuale mediante atomizzatore e distribuzione con lancia manuale.

I risultati condotti in diverse situazioni lavorative e con diverse coperture della struttura protetta e dimensioni della serra, ha confermato che il rischio minore si ottiene distribuendo i prodotti con atomizzatore rispetto alla lancia manuale.

Logicamente i trattamenti che espongono di meno il lavoratore sono quelli effettuati con coperture a rete ombreggiante e atomizzatore.

L’uso di lancia manuale porta a condizioni più sfavorevoli di rischio anche se la distribuzione avviene in campo aperto (senza nessun tipo di copertura).

Non da sottovalutare, infine, l’incremento della potenziale esposizione inalatoria all’interno degli apprestamenti protettivi rispetto al campo aperto in quanto le condizioni microclimatiche (condizioni termiche severe) svolgono una funzione determinante sull’inalazione dei prodotti distribuiti soprattutto quando non vengono correttamente utilizzati i dispositivi di protezione individuali.

Il gradiente termico che si realizza all’interno delle serre tra le varie ore del giorno e tra l’interno e l’esterno, d’altronde, comportando un aumento della riserva idrica superficiale, può compromettere l’integrità della barriera cutanea che, unitamente alla secrezione delle ghiandole sudoripare eccrine, può favorire la persistenza dei fitofarmaci sulla cute, ancora presenti nell’ambiente della serra dopo il trattamento, aumentando il rateo di assorbimento cutaneo e provocando anche dei quadri di dermatite cronica delle mani.

ApprofondimentiI dispositivi di protezione individuale per i trattamenti in agricoltura.

69 thoughts on “La percezione del rischio chimico nelle serre.

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